Al-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal <h4><a href="http://qu.edu.iq/vmjou/">Al-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences</a></h4> <h4>Aims and Scope:&nbsp;Al-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences &nbsp;is a Bi-Annual scientific peer review journal issued by the College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Al-Qadisiyah, deal with publishing of original scientific research, research reviews, case reports, research notes, short essay, symposium proceedings, summaries of presentations, letters to the editor, related to the various veterinary and livestock sciences and biological sciences that are not published or submitted for publication elsewhere. It published in the English language as the open access online, in addition to a print version.</h4> en-US <p><strong>Copyright:&nbsp;</strong>All manuscripts published by Al-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences are under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Creative Commons Attribution License</span>.</a>&nbsp;This permits anyone to copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the work provided the original work and source is appropriately cited<strong>.</strong>&nbsp;Copyright on any open access article published by Al-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences is retained by the author(s).</p> <p>Note: The journal is not allow any scientific misconduct in any published research article. Any article exceeds the permissible ratio of plagiarism is rejected. However, as a publisher will follow strict scientific guidelines and advice to retract or erratum of any article at any time if found scientific misconduct or errors in any articles. Authors are responsible for obtaining permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere.</p> dheyaa.aldulaimi@qu.edu.iq (Prof. Dr. Dhia Hussain Jassim AL-Dulaimi) saad.ghmeiss@qu.edu.iq (Dr. Saad H. Al-Husseiny) Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.0.2.0 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Pharmaceutical allergy pattern for antibacterial of some specified species of bacterial which diagnosed by vitek-2 technology isolated from the infection of the yolk sac in the meat breeders in Al-Diwaniyah http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/495 <p>For the first time in Iraq, the study was used electronic vitek-2 apparatus for detection some bacteria that were isolated from omphalitis cases of broiler chicks of meat breeders in AL-Diwaniyah city. Thirty swaps were taken from thirty of meat broiler chicks infected by yolk sac infection or omphalitis then the samples tested biochemical tests by use electronic vitek-2 apparatus after culture all the isolates on media. E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faceuim were recorded by our study from the samples with percentages (60%), (23.3%) and (16.6%) respectively; then the antibiotics sensitivity test has done for all the isolates where the antibiotics that have more effect were trimethoprim(TR)(5MG), Amikacin(AK)(30mg) and Tetracycline(TE)(30mg) respectively. E.coli was prevalent from other bacteria, the subject was required more studies about all aspects like pathological, molecular, and immunological</p> Khilood Hamdan Fahed, Azhar Abdulsada Neamah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/495 Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Detection the effect of the treatment of pentostam on LPG, CPA, and PPG virulence factors of cutaneous Leishmania by real time-PCR http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/496 <p><em>The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pentostam</em> <em>treatment through effect on some of the virulence factors of cutaneous Leishmania parasite</em> <em>by</em> <em>using the real-time PCR within five weeks, as well as the determination of parasite type by three virulence factors lipophosphoglycan, Cysteine protease and proteophosphoglycans by using nested PCR</em> <em>technique,</em> <em>since that these factors are already were diagnosed in Leishmania parasite.</em> <em>Fifty-five biopsies were taken from skin ulcers which clinically diagnosed as cutaneous&nbsp; leishmaniasis from patients attending Al-Diwaniyah education hospital in Al-Qadisiyah Province for the period between 1 \ 11 \ 2012-1 \ 5 \ 2013 ,whose age ranged from&nbsp; (10-80) years. The DNA was extracted, and then amplified by using primers selected on repetitive kDNA for identification of a Leishmania parasite; it is L. major species and the above three virulence factors, after that DNA electrophoresis was done for the amplified DNA. The results showed that Leishmania parasite was detected in 89.09% of samples. The L. major species was identified in the majority of Leishmania parasite positive samples 98%. RNA was extracted from positive samples collected before and after the treatment with pentostam to measure the amount of gene expression of virulence factors after treatment and to measure the effect of the drug on these factors. After amplification using four of primers, the first three of them were the target genes LPG, CPA, PPG whereas the fourth primer is called the initiator, which is GAPDH. These primers are designed using the NCBI gene bank database. Results showed that there was a high difference for each gene during the period of treatment in a level of the possibility of (P≤0.05) and by comparing the three genes it was found that there was a significant difference between cysteine protease and the other two factor lipophosphoglycan, proteophosphoglycan, whereas no significant difference between lipophosphoglycan, proteophosphoglycan. Hence, it has been clear that the treatment with pentostam has a high effect on parasite by its effect on the virulence factors</em> <em>(LPG, CPA, and PPG) and this explains that possibility of infection may happen again after having the treatment</em>.</p> R. S. Al-Difaie, Ghaidaa Abbas Jasim ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/496 Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Histological evaluation of camel colostrum extracts effects as a new biological therapy on auricular cartilage defect healing. http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/497 <p><em>The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the effect of camel colostrum extracts on auricular cartilage defect healing. Iraqi camel colostrum were collected post-parturition at 0, 6 hours, double centrifuged, filtrated and refrigerated until use. Fifteen albino rats were divided randomly into 3 groups;(TG1) treated with colostrum collected directly after birth, (TG2) treated with colostrum collected 6 hours post-parturition, and (TG3) treated with normal saline. Under routine surgical approach, holes were done in their ear cartilages. The diameter of the holes were measured daily for one week. Biopsies were taken at 1, 2, 3 weeks for histological evaluation of cartilages healing.&nbsp; (TG1) showed the superiority of histological evaluation by </em><em>complete healing between the two edges of chondrocytes in the site of defect, profuse fibrosis with formation of new blood vessels and mild infiltration of inflammatory cells</em><em>. The results demonstrated that, the camel colostrum extracts had a beneficial therapeutic effects on cartilage defects, which might regarded as a new biological therapy.</em></p> Amir I. Towfik ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/497 Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 A comparative study among using of Ketamine, Tramadol, and Paracetamol in three injectable anesthetic protocols for induction of general anesthesia in sheep http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/498 <p><em>&nbsp;The study was designed to compare the efficacy of using three injectable drugs; </em><em>Ketamine, </em><em>Paracetamol, and </em><em>Tramadol in three </em><em>anesthetic protocols. Fifteen apparently healthy adult sheep of either sex weighing (25-30 kg) were utilized, and divided into three equal groups; G1; (K<sub>4</sub>P<sub>10</sub>) was given Ketamine 4mg/kg B.W + Paracetamol 10mg/kg B.W, G2; (K<sub>4</sub>T<sub>2</sub>) was given Ketamine 4mg/kg B.W + Tramadol 2mg/kg B.W, and G3; (K<sub>4</sub>T<sub>2</sub>P<sub>10</sub>) was given Ketamine 4mg/kg B.W + Tramadol 2mg/kg + Paracetamol 10mg/kg B.W. Drugs were given to the animal by IV injection for creating induction of anesthesia. The induction time, length of surgical anesthesia, recovery time, and degree of analgesia, degree of muscle relaxation, respiratory rate, heart rate and rectal temperature were recorded at 5 minutes before injection of drugs and consider as control readings. Readings were repeated at 5, 10, and 15 minutes after administration of anesthetic drugs. Results were displayed that anesthesia with (K<sub>4</sub>T<sub>2</sub>P<sub>10</sub>) protocol was better compared with the two other protocols as it produced reliable surgical anesthesia, good analgesia, muscle relaxation and short recovery time.</em></p> Ali Ismail Jassim, Thaier Alwan Abid ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/498 Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative study of some indicator bacteria of sheep and goats raw milk in Al-Qadisiyah Province http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/499 <p><em>The present study was carried out in Al-Diwaniyah city and its different districts, which includes (city center, Afak district and their regions, Al-Hamza district and their regions, Al-Shamiya district and their regions, Al-Daghra regions and its villages) during a period November 2009 to July 2010. A total of samples used in this study were 120 raw milk samples collected includes 60 samples for each species for (sheep and goats) for two different season of year (Winter and Summer), first start from (beginning&nbsp; November 2009 to end of the January 2010),and the second start from (beginning&nbsp; May to July 2010)</em> <em>The results of this study revealed the rising the averages of microbes contaminated raw milk samples in each species of animals included in this study where raw milk samples for sheep recorded (0.16×10<sup>6 </sup>CFU/ml) and goats (0.13×10<sup>6</sup> CFU/ml). The highest averages of total Coliform bacterial count were found in raw milk samples of sheep and goats (0.15×10<sup>6</sup> CFU/ml). While averages of Staphylococcus aureas were high in raw milk samples of sheep (0.20×10<sup>6</sup></em> <em>CFU/ml) and less in raw milk samples of goats (0.14×10<sup>6</sup> CFU/ml). While the average of Streptococcus spp. Were (0.30×10<sup>6</sup> CFU/ml) and (0.27×10<sup>6 </sup>CFU/ml) for sheep and goats respectively. Seasons of the year had effect on average of total bacterial count studied for each samples of raw milk for all species of animals included in this study. Where shown rising averages of all microbes numbers during summer period while there are decreasing in average of microbes during winter period which variances significantly (P≤0.05). </em></p> Kadhim H. Abbas, Karim N. Taher, Falah H. Abidallatef ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/499 Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Ovarian immunohistochemical expression of estradiol 17β in cyclic female rats treated with steroid free bovine follicular fluid antiserum http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/502 <p><em>The current study aimed to examine the effect of steroid-free bovine follicular fluid (SFBFF) antiserum on ovarian immunohistochemical expression levels of 17β Estradiol in cyclic virgin female rats. After estrus synchronization, 80 adult virgin female Wistar rats (aged 60 days and weighed 156±4.82 g) were </em><em>randomly assigned into two equal groups (40 females each) and</em><em> injected intrperitoneally, at late metestrous, with 100 µl of normal saline (control) and 100 µl of SFBFF antiserum (AI-SFBFF group)</em><em>. </em><em>At each phase of the estrus cycle, 10 females from each group were anesthetized (</em><em>by injection of 0.4 ml of thiopental sod./ animal)</em><em>, dissected and the ovaries were obtained </em><em>for determination of i</em><em>mmunohistochemical expression density of 17β Estradiol. Ovarian examination of AI-SFBFF group females </em><em>demonstrated </em><em>slight increase of estradiol immunohistochemical density at proestrus and mark increase at estrus and metestrus phases. </em><em>It could be concluded that immunoneutralization of endogenous inhibin by SFBFF antiserum results in high levels of estradiol actions in reproductive organs. </em></p> Al-Sa'aidi, J.A. A, Al-Jayashi. G. S. M, Khafaji, S. S. ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/502 Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Histomorphological study of duodenum of goose (Anser anser) http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/503 <p><em>The present work includes anatomical and histological </em><em>studied of the different part of the duodenum in the Goose (Anser anser). It was taken (10) birds were anaesthesia and work of a longitudinal incision in the abdomen and the eradication of the gut complete manner and then duodenum measurements, </em><em>Anatomical study shown</em><em> duodenum divided into three parts ascending, descending and middle part. Histological study after dying in the form of hematoxylin and eosin represent</em><em> the wall of the duodenum in all parts consist of four-layer tunica mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa</em><em>. The tunica mucosa of all parts of the duodenum was studied with folded villi of different shape and size, which were lined by simple columnar epithelium having more goblet cells in proximal part in contrast middle and distal part.</em><em> The goblet cells are distributed between enterocytes and secrete mucus that covers the mucosa. The apical part of villi of&nbsp; proximal duodenum were slightly pointed and the basal parts of villi were thicker than middle and distal duodenum that’s come from the proximal part of duodenum plays major role in net nutrient absorption Lamina muscularis mucosa is various in thickness in all parts of duodenum and was made up of smooth muscle fibres. Tunica submucosa in the duodenum of goose in this study consist of loose connective tissue rich with lymphoid fibres and duodenal glands.&nbsp; The musculosa layer consists of two smooth muscle layers outer longitudinal layer and a thick circular muscle layer that allow mixing and propulsion of the digesta through the intestinal tract </em></p> Abdularazzaq B. Kadhim, Eman I. Dali, Hassaneen A. Sharoot ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/503 Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Hemolysin gene detection in some isolates of Klebsiella pneumonia by PCR http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/504 <p><em>Hemolysin protein is exotoxin produced by organisms that cause lysis of blood cells. This study was conducted to screen the presence of hemolysin gene from 20 isolates of Klebsiella pneumonia based 16S rRNA genes by using a specific primer. This gene potent the pathogenesis of Klebsiella pneumonia. The primer was designed in this study by NCBI-GenBank and primer3 plus. (Bioneer Company provided the primers. Korea). Molecular detection of isolates, which give away specific PCR products of 505bp for hly gene, hemolysin gene,</em><em> was detected in 70% (14/20)</em><em>.</em></p> Jameela Radi Esmaeel, Jenan Nadhim Sadeq ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/504 Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Gene expression study of pathogenic hemolysin producing E. coli isolated from cattle by using reverse transcription real-time PCR http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/505 <p><em>The main goal of current study is an investigation of detection and expression of hemolysin toxin in E.coli isolates in clinical veterinary infection cases included Mastitis milk, Abortion samples and diarrhea samples from cattle in</em> <em>Al-Diwaniyah city by using real time-polymerase chain reaction technique. Total samples that used in this study are (24) isolates, included (9) isolates from mastitis cases, (5) isolates from abortion cases, and (10) isolates have taken from Diarrhea cases in cattle. The total prevalence of hemolysin in E.coli isolates is 18/24 (75%), where the percentage of occurrence of hemolysin production E.coli isolates by using real-time PCR was 7/9 (77%), 5/5 (100%), and 6/10 (60%) in Mastitis milk, Abortion and Diarrhea cases in cattle respectively. In concluding, production of hemolysin toxin by E.coli isolates have contrast activity depend on the type of sample; the study found the abortion isolates have high gene expression followed by diarrhea isolates, then milk isolates.</em></p> Hassan Hachim Nasser, Ghassan Khudhair Ismaeel, Noor Mahmood Majeed ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/505 Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Surgical treatment of hernia in cattle: A review http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/506 <p><em>This study aimed to highlight on hernial types that affect animals especially in cattle, the ways of diagnosis and treatment by using different techniques, which way is more suitable either the highlight on advantage and disadvantage of these techniques. There are many types of a hernia may happen in cattle's but the most frequently noted in cattle was</em> <em>a ventral and umbilical hernia. The researches confirmed that an umbilical hernia usually accrued in calves due to failure to close of the umbilical cord, while a ventral hernia is usually present in cattle due to trauma, heavyweight. A hernia was easy to diagnoses by case history, inspection and palpation. There are several techniques to treat a hernia, surgical or non-surgical depending on the size and the type of a hernia. In case of surgical techniques, there are a two-type open and closed surgical operation. The recent searches commend that in case of a simple and small hernia in size they treat by suturing the edges of a ring by absorbable suture (Hernioraphy), but in case of a large hernia must be used mesh to support the muscle in technique named (Hernioplasty). Mesh may cause irritation in its site, cause post-operative pain, and delay the time of healing so the recent searches to make a solution to this problems mesh must be covert by special material to make a barrier between it and muscle and lubricated a site hernia. </em></p> Rafid H. Farman, Saad Hashim Al-Husseiny, Ali Nair Abd Al- Ameer ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/506 Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Phylogenic analysis of the sheep Orf virus in Iraq http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/507 <p><em>Orf disease is a highly contagious, zoonotic viral skin disease affects sheep, goats and some other domesticated and wild ruminants, therefor&nbsp; this study is designed to evaluate predominant genotypes circulating&nbsp; Orf virus of sheep in Al-Qadisiyah Province in Iraq as the first time by using the sequencing and phylogenic analysis of isolates Orf virus strains. The study was carried out on (94) skin samples of affected sheep animals diagnosed previously by RT-PCR technique in different ages and sexes between September /2013– March/ 2014. PCR assay was performed for amplification of 408bp GM_CSF/IL-2 inhibition factor (GIF) gene Orf virus in positive samples of real-time PCR assay. Eight purified DNA products isolated from different areas of Al-Qadisiyah Province (one sample for each area) were analyzed by using sequencing method to obtain the nucleotide sets of GIF gene. DNA sequencing technique was performed for Phylogenic relationship analysis study of local Orf virus positive samples isolates with NCBI-GenBank Global Orf virus isolates. The results of endpoint polymerase chain reaction for detection of specific GIF gene (408 bp) of Orf virus showed positive results for all collected examined samples. Sequencing analysis of our isolates in the present study recorded and published under accession numbers were (KJ508895.1, KJ634611.1, KJ634842.1, KJ648451.1, KJ653445.1, KJ653446.1, KJ659373.1 and KJ697772.1). The results of phylogeny tree construction showed that five of our published isolates of this study (KJ508895.1, KJ648451.1, KJ653445.1, KJ653446.1, and KJ697772.1) are located in the same first tree branch, which shared highest and closed relationship with AF192803.1, DQ184476.1 Orf virus strain NZ2 isolated from New Zealand. The KJ659373.1 our published Iraqi Orf virus isolates of this study showed high homology and closed relationship with AY605973.1 Orf virus isolated from reindeer in Norway. Phylogenic analysis of KJ634611.1 and KJ634842.1 our published Iraqi Orf isolates of the present study showed high homology with AY605977.1 Orf virus isolated from goat in Norway. Sequencing study and phylogenic analysis have been considered useful in understanding Orf virus scenario in Iraqi endemic area and which important in application of control measures and selective efficient vaccines to use in vaccination programs in Iraq. </em></p> Salah Mahdi Karim, Mohsen Abd Al- Rodhan, Khalefa Ali Mansou, Nawras Kadhum Mahdee, Saad Hashim Al-Husseiny ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/507 Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Rapid Detection of Avian Influenza Virus H9 in broilers by using RT-PCR in Al-Qadisiyah Province http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/508 <p><em>This study was conducted to detect Avian Influenza Virus H9 in broilers chicken farms in Al-Qadisiyah Province. A tracheal swab from 30 infected chicken flocks located in different areas of Al-Qadisiyah Province was collected to make rapid Immunochromatography test for AIV by using rapid Immunochromatographic&nbsp; Influenza virus antigen One-Step Kit and tissue samples&nbsp; were&nbsp;collected from flocks&nbsp;which showed positive for a rapid test to make rRT-PCR. The revealed that twenty-one (70%) flocks were positive for AIV by rapid Immunochromatography test. The molecular detection of AIV showed 23(76.67%) out of 30 flocks were positive for AIV H9.&nbsp; In conclusion, AIV was the most important cause of respiratory diseases at the time of the study. Both tests were found rapid, efficient and specific to detect AIV, but rt RT-PCR was more sensitive and more specific.</em></p> Abbas Hadi Jasim Al- Mahmoudi, Nafea S. Jasim ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/508 Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of some environmental stresses on nutrients concentration of Phragmites australis and use it as fodder http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/509 <p><em>&nbsp;This study has been conducted to assess and analyze the nature and environmental characteristics of Baher Al-Najaf depression (BAND) and their effect on nutrients Concentration of Phragmites australis as responses to Environmental Stresses and use it as fodder, has been studied for 12 months in four different sites. Samples were collected monthly for the period February 2015 to January&nbsp; 2016, taken from four selected sites in (BAND), Iraq. The environmental factors of water studied include: Temperature, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Salinity, Water pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Turbidity, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Total Hardness (TH),&nbsp; ions, Total Nitrogen (TN),&nbsp; Total Phosphorus (TP),&nbsp; Bicarbonate (HCO<sub>3</sub><sup>2-</sup>), Sulfate (SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup>), Chloride (Cl<sup>-1</sup>), and sodium (Na<sup>1+</sup>) ions. Results of water quality have proved the highest values of environmental factors were in autumn and summer while the least environmental factors were in winter and spring. Environmental factors&nbsp; were gradients significantly high at site as follows S2 &gt; S3 &gt; S4 &gt; S1.The studied factors of climate are Air Temperature, Relative Humidity,&nbsp; Intensity of Solar Radiation, Precipitation Rates, Day Length and Evaporation Rate. Results have shown that climatic factors affected water resources and salinity level in (BAND). The changes in the nutrient cycling and/or accumulation are in most cases unpredictable, and that is why a detailed description of the local structure and state of within-stand development are necessary. The ability and translocation are important, especially in changing environments with a varying supply of resources. Ionic contents Na<sup>+</sup> and Cl<sup>-</sup> significantly increased, whereas K<sup>+</sup>, TP (Total Phosphor) and TN (Total Nitrogen) decreased with increasing levels of environmental stresses in each site and season. In general, it can be used Phragmites australis as fodder in suitable environmental factors and it cannot be used as fodder in stress environmental factors due to decrease in nutrients concentration of Phragmites australis. </em></p> Muthik Abd Muslim Guda ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/509 Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Aflatoxins B1 and M1 residues in chicken's livers in Al Diwaniyah city http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/510 <p><em>In </em><em>this study</em><em>, </em><em>(</em><em>60) samples of local and imported chicken liver were collected with (30) samples of each type from markets of Al Diwaniyah city. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) technique used to detect the amount and type of aflatoxin residues.</em> <em>The results of the local chicken liver test showed that B1 and M1 residues was observed in (17) samples of (30) samples tested (56.7%) and (13) (43.3%).Total of the two toxins was between (1.9 - 72.2) ppb at the rate of (21.15) ppb, and (5) samples (29.41%) of the local chicken liver is not suitable for human consumption to overcome the toxins in the alfa</em><em>toxins</em><em> where the limits allowed in human food.</em> <em>The results of the imported chicken liver examination showed that (15) samples of B1 and M1 were infected (30) samples (50%). The range of toxin amount of the total of the two types of toxins ranged between (0.5 - 52.2) ppb at rate&nbsp; (16.71) ppb, and the amount of toxins in (5) samples of the allowed limits, and the local chicken liver more contain the foals of aflatoxins chicken liver, but there were no significant differences between the two types.</em></p> Mohammed A Molaghi, Kareem N Taher, Falah H Abd- Allatif ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/510 Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Identification of Leishmania donovani in blood of experimentally infected rats by quantitative real-time PCR http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/511 <p>The present study has been carried out at the Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Veterinary Medicine/Al-Qadisiyah University to diagnose the visceral leishmaniasis molecular technique (Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction). The experimental study includes fourth Wistar female rats (weighted 250 ± 2 g.) were injected by blood from an infected patient in the peritoneal cavity, after 8-10 days of experimental infection, blood samples had been collected directly from the heart in order to diagnose the infection by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Quantitative Real-Time PCR qPCR technique was used for amplification of the conserved region in GAPDH gene that was used for detection of Leishmania donovani in blood samples of rats. It shows the Amplification of genomic DNA template concentrations of Leishmania donovani during reaction with syber dye inside the apparatus under threshold cycle, also shows the melting peak of Leishmania donovani genomic DNA template concentrations is demonstrate the specialization of Leishmania donovani genomic DNA amplification in a single peak for all samples.</p> Noor Idan Jarad, Ghaidaa Abbas Jasim ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/511 Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular and microscopic study of Entamoeba histolytica in Camels in Al-Qadisiyah & Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf Provinces http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/512 <p><em>Using a PCR technique, the detection of Entamoeba histolytica in camels was the main reason for performing of this study. Two hundred faecal samples of the camels from the slaughterhouses &amp; nomadic areas of Al-Qadisiyah and Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf provinces. Some of the camels suffered from diarrhoea &amp; other asymptomatic animals, their ages range from less than 1 year to more than 1 year. Whereby showed the prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica infection was (</em><em>30.5</em><em>%) by Lougal iodine stain</em><em> method according to using microscopic examination for a description of </em><em>E. histolytica</em> <em>cysts</em><em>. While the prevalence rate depending on the </em><em>PCR technique there was (61%)</em><em>.</em></p> H. H. Al- Bayati, Ghaidaa Abbas Jasim ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/512 Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Histological and morphometric study of the skin appendages of local breed sheep ovis ovis http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/513 <p><em>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The aim of this study is provide&nbsp; histological and morphometric&nbsp; data information to the skin appendages of the local breed sheep regarding to the individual variation in different animal species to use in another sciences. The study carried out on ten healthy ram skin and the samples were taken during autumn season from fourth different anatomical sites (ventral ear surfaces, neck, middle dorsum, tail.). The study revealed that there were a number of skin appendages including( wool follicles and skin glands Sebaceous and sweat glands), two types of wool follicles were observed in the dermis (reticular layer) of the skin of local breed sheep in the form of primary and secondary wool follicles, the wool follicles in sheep were considered as a compound type in which there were more than one wool fiber emerged from one pore on the skin surface. The follicles was arranged as groups consist mainly of three follicles (Trio), in addition to (Dio) and (Mono) arrangement, in this study we noticed the greater diameter of the primary and secondary wool follicles in the neck region and the deeper primary wool follicles present in neck region ,while the deeper secondary wool follicles present in middle dorsum. In respect to the sebaceous glands, the present results indicate that they attached with the both types of wool follicles in which they opened at the upper part of the wool follicles via short duct &nbsp;the larger sebaceous gland found in neck region all the sweat glands of the skin of sheep were of Apocrine type, these glands which have large secretory parts and narrow duct were accompanied the primary wool follicle but the bigger sweat gland present in middle dorsum.</em></p> Maha Abdul-Hadi Abdul-Rida, Nijah H.A. M, Adnan W.A. B. ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/513 Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Isolation and identification of some bacteria from imported meat (beef burger) by using vitek2 technique http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/514 <p><em>Iraqi's local markets contains a significant variety of imported meats from different sources, beef burger is one of them, the current study aimed to knowledge occurrence and prevalence of bacteria in meat of beef hamburger by using vitek 2 technique</em><em> in Al-Diwaniyah city</em><em>. Forty Samples of beef burger were chosen randomly from local markets, all the isolates submitted to culture on many of media agar like </em><em>MacConkey, blood base agar, SS agar, manitol salt agar, Eosin-methylene blue agar, Chromagar Orientation, , and salmonella Chromagar, then the isolates tested by </em><em>vitek</em><em> 2 technique to confirm final diagnosis, the study was shown there are many of bacteria reside in beef hamburger at different percentage, </em><em>E.coli (55%), Klebsiella pneumonia (38%), Klebsiella oxytoca (2%), Staphylococcus aureus (44%), Proteus mirabilis (13%), Salmonella typhimurium (18%), Enterococcus feacalis (8%) and serratia marcescens (3%). It could consideration meat of beef burger is an eligible nutrient to the multiplication of many of bacteria types that may be very dangerous if it transmitted to human.</em></p> Heifa’a J. Hassan, Jenan Nadhim Sadeq, Basima J. Mohamed, Muthanna Hadi Hussain ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/514 Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Transcriptional profiling of livers from different strain of mice treated with Asparaginase http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/515 <p><em>Asparaginase (ASNase) is widely used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children but it causes metabolic complications related to liver toxicity. ASNase results in the synthesis of some factors such as ATF4. The eIF2-ATF4 pathway is essential for cell survival during amino acid starvation conditions. Activation of the AAR in the liver requires the eIF2 kinase called general control nonderepressible 2 kinase (GCN2). To what extent activation of the GCN2-eIF2-AAR is mediated by ATF4 is unknown. Our objective and hypothesis are addressed in our aim to describe the liver response to ASNase in mice deleted for Atf4. RNA sequencing alongside complementary biochemical approaches was performed in the livers of mice treated with eight daily injections of ASNase or saline excipient. Differences in gene expression were evaluated. We also explored the relationship between the different treatment groups and strains. This research provides insight into the importance of genetic background of patients in choosing ASNase as a treatment. </em></p> Rana Jaber Tarish ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/515 Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 General Control Nonderepressible 2 and ATF4 Direct Liver Genes during Asparaginase Treatment in Mice http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/516 <p><em>Asparaginase (ASNase) treatment results in synthesis of some factors such as ATF4. The eIF2-ATF4 pathway is essential for cell survival during amino acid starvation conditions. Activation of the AAR in liver requires the eIF2 kinase called general control nonderepressible 2 kinase (GCN2). To what extent activation of the GCN2-eIF2-AAR is mediated by ATF4 is unknown. Our objective and hypothesis are addressed in our aim to describe the liver response to ASNase in mice deleted for Atf4. RNA sequencing alongside complementary biochemical approaches were performed in the livers of mice treated with eight daily injections of ASNase or saline excipient. Cellular pathways examined in detail included the AAR. We discovered that global hepatic gene expression patterns in Atf4 knockout mice overlapped with Gcn2 knockout mice. Shared hepatic pathways or processes altered during ASNase included mTOR signaling, and xenobiotic metabolism. On the other hand, loss of Atf4 during ASNase uniquely altered gene expression signatures reflecting signaling via eIF2 and ER stress. This research provides insight into the importance of genetic background of patients in choosing ASNase as a treatment</em></p> Rana Jaber Tarish ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/516 Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Toxic pathological effect of mitomycin-c on male reproductive organs in rat http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/517 <p><em>The aim of present study was detected the effect of Mitomycin-c on the histological structure on male reproductive organ. In this study used (24) healthy adult male rats were divided into three groups, each group includes (8) animals: the 1<sup>st</sup> toxic group was injected (6.5mg/kg) of Mitomycin-c subcutaneous (s/c) once daily, the 2ed therapeutic or low dose group was injected (3.25 mg/kg) of Mitomycin-c subcutaneous (s/c) once daily, while the 3<sup>rd</sup> control group was injected physiological normal saline (0.9% NaCl2). The experimental period was (10) weeks. Animal, which were treated with Mitomycin-c along the period of experiment showed, sever pathological changes, particularly in testes and epididymis.</em></p> Hala Abbas Naji, Khalil Gazar Chelab, Atiaf Ghanim Rhyaf ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/517 Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The role of beta vulgaris (beetroot) in hemoglobin (Hb) elevating in patients with Anemia due to iron deficiency http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/518 <p><em>The human life interesting is the main important of world health care. The plant family has vigorous of natural element and chemical compounds that can use greatly in medicine and other applications. &nbsp;This study involved used the beetroots for elevated the hemoglobin percentage in adult patients suffering with anemia that resulting from iron deficiency .Because the Beta vulgaris provides B-complex vitamins and minerals ex. potassium, copper and magnesium. This study sample composed of (34) patients who randomly distributed to three unequal groups (man – women – control).The results showed significant (P&lt; 0.05) with RBC, Hb and PCV elevating in all patients and woman have increasing more than men.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></p> Wejdan M. kadhem, Hanaa Enaya, Arshed S. kadhom ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/518 Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Effect the dietary supplementation of Cariander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and Fennel (Foeniculum vulgares) seed powder and their mixture in productional and physiological performance of broiler http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/519 <p><em>This study was conducted in one of the commercial poultry farms for study the effect of dietary supplementation of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L) and Fennel (Foeniculum vulgares) seed powder and their mixture in improving the production and physiological performance of broiler. In this experiment we used 120 chicks of </em><em>Hubbard</em><em> at one day old and distributed randomly to four treatments with three replicates for each treatment and was given two types of diets, The first is a starter that has been feeding on the 1-22 day age-old and finisher that has been feeding on 23-45 day age-old. The control group included the chicks that feeding on the basal diet without any additive.T1 which included the group of chicks that feeding on the basal diet plus 5% of coriander seed powder, While T2 included the group of chicks that feeding on the basal diet plus 5% of fennel seed powder then T3which included the group of chicks that feeding on the basal diet plus the mixture of 2.5% of coriander seed powder and 2.5 % of fennel seed powder. The results showed the present of a significant effect (p&lt;0.05)&nbsp; of adding coriander and fennel seed powder and their mixture in the broiler diet in the body weight, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, feed intake, carcass and internal organs weight compared with the control group as well as the results&nbsp; showed no significant difference (p&gt;0.05) in dressing percentage, heart weight and serum protein concentration between different treatments ,while we saw a significant decrease (P&lt;0.05) in the concentration of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and uric acid in blood serum of treatments compared to the control group. In this study, we conclude that the dietary supplementation of coriander and fennel seed powder and their mixture lead to improving the production and physiological performance of broiler.</em></p> Zahira Abul-Jabbar AL-Zuhairi, Wafaa Sameer Abdullah, Raed Kahat Majal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/519 Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the virucidal efficacy of commercial antiviral drugs against Lasota virus a surrogate for enveloped viruses http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/520 <p><em>Many antivirals are commonly used in Iraq’s poultry farms and there is controversy about effective of these commercial antiviral drugs. The aim of this study was tested individually for the effectiveness of these commercial antiviral drugs. Four kinds of commercial antiviral drugs including VIRUX®, TopAMD®, V8® and Licorice® was used in this study. Lasota virus was used as a surrogate for enveloped viruses. The following tests: Spot hemagglutination, Antigen Rapid NDV Ag Test Kit, Electron microscopy, qRTPCR and Egg inoculation in order to determine the effect of these antivirals on hemagglutinating activity, a viral protein, viral morphology, virus titer and viral infectivity respectively. All antivirals had no toxic effect on the chicken embryos. All these </em><em>antivirals </em><em>had no effect on haemagglutination activity except Licorice. No antivirals changed nucleoprotein antigenicity of Lasota virus. All antivirals had no effect on the morphology of the virus except Licorice destroyed the viral morphology and decreased in viral spikes. Three of the four antiviral reduced the viral titer while Licorice complete degradation of viral RNA and prevent detection it by </em><em>qRTPCR</em><em>. The allantoic fluid harvested from inoculated eggs with the treated Lasota virus with antivirals showed a remarkable decrease in viral infectivity as following: TopAMP about 20%, V8 40%, and Virux 60% while Licorice showed a complete reduction of viral infectivity (100%). </em><em>In conclusion, the Licorice revealed the best antiviral activity. </em></p> Amaal F. Ghanim, Hazim T. Thwiny ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/520 Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000